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During the Tjukurrpa (Creation Era) Tingari ancestor beings gathered at a series of sites for Malliera (Initiation) Ceremonies. They travelled vast stretches of the country, performing rituals at specific sites that in turn created the diverse natural features of the environment (depicted here as the rectangles – the earth and circle – waterholes). The Tingari men were accompanied by novices and usually followed by Tingari Women. The creation stories and rituals form the song cycles and ceremonies of today, used in part, for the teachings of the post initiatory youths, whilst also providing explanations for contemporary customs.